Uztaro 89 (2014)

Ijitoen ondarearen balioespena turismo etnokulturalaren bidez

Egilea(k):
Anne Marie Mamontoff
Jakintza-arloa:
Soziologia
Orrialdeak:
91-107
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Laburpena:

Historian zehar garatutako kultura-ondare ez-material (KOEM) aberatsaren eramaile dira munduan ijitoak, eta ondare hori bat dator, gutxiengo komunitateak babesteko esparruaren baitan, UNESCOk ezarritako irizpideekin. Turismoaren profesionalei egindako lehendabiziko inkestan egiaztatu dugu ijitoak deskodetzeko haiei buruzko estereotipoak baliatzen direla (marjinalak dira, arriskutsuak, letratu gabeak, etab.). Nolanahi den ere, estereotipo positiboak ere badaude (musikariak dira, artistak, artisauak, etab.). Ijitoen lorpen positibo horietatik abiatuta, beste inkesta bat egin dugu etorkizuneko turismo-profesionalen artean, tokiko turismoaren bideragarritasunari buruzko iritziak jasotzeko. Adoretu egiten gaituzte erantzunek, ezen, profesional horien arabera, ijitoen KOEMak, turismo etnokultural gisa, bisitariak erakar baititzake. Kontzeptuen esparrua KOEM, turismo etnokulturala eta gizarte-mailakatzea kontzeptuetan ardaztu dugu, eta prozedurari dagokionez, gurutzatutako metodologian oinarritu dugu: analisi soziohistorikoa, hiru erantzuneko jarrera-eskala eta ordezkapen-galdetegi itxia.

GAKO-HITZAK: Gutxiengo ijitoak · Kultura-ondare ez-materiala · Etnoturismoa · Estereotipoak · Gizarte-mailakatzea.

The assessment of gipsy’s heritage by means of ethno-cultural tourism

Gypsies bear rich intangible cultural heritage (ICH) all over the world. They have developed that heritage through the history, and it fits with the guidelines established by UNESCO for the minorities’ safeguarding framework. In the first questionnaire performed among tourism professionals, we have confirmed that gipsies are always decoded by stereotypes affecting them (they are marginal, dangerous, uneducated, etc.). Nevertheless, they are also decrypted by positive stereotypes (they are musicians, artists, artisans, etc.). Those positive achievements have been the departure for our second questionnaire, performed among future tourism professionals aiming to know their opinions on the viability of autochthon tourism. The results of the inquiry have been encouraging: as far as the future professionals are concerned, gipsy intangible cultural heritage can draw visitors by means of ethno-cultural tourism. Our conceptual framework sets on these three concepts: intangible cultural heritage, ethno-cultural tourism and social categorisation. As for the procedure, a crossing methodology has been used: socio-historical analysis, a three answer scale of attitudes and a closed substitution-questionnaire.

KEY WORDS: Gipsy minorities · Intangible cultural heritage · Ethno-tourism · Stereotype · Social categorisation.